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c u l tu r a l h e r ita ge and to tr a n sm i t i t safely to fu t u r e generations; a c k n o w le d g in g th a t th e b enefits and b u rd e n s o f c a r in g fo r E a rth s h o u ld be shared fa i r ly between p re s e n t and fu t u r e generations.

I I . ECOLOGICAL

INTEGRITY 5 . P r o t e c t and r e s to r e th e in te g r i ty o f Earth’s e c o lo g i ca l s y s t em s , w ith s p e c ia l con c e rn for b io lo g ic a l d iv e r s ity and th e natural p r o c e s s e s that su s ta in a n d ren ew life .

1. M a ke ecological conserv a t io n an in te g ra l p a r t o f a l l d e v e lo pm e n t p la n n in g and im p le m e n ta t io n . 2. Establish re p re senta tiv e a n d v ia b le n a tu r e and b io sphere reserves, in c lu d in g w i ld lands, s u f f ic ie n t to m a in ta in E a r th ’s b io lo g ic a l d iv e r s i t y and l i f e - s u p p o r t systems. 3. M anage th e e x tr a c t io n o f re n ew a b le re sources such as fo o d , w a te r and w ood in ways th a t d o n o t h a rm th e r e s ilie nce and p r o d u c t iv i ty o f ecolo g ic a l systems o r th r e a te n th e v ia b i l i t y o f in d iv id u a l species. 4. P ro m o te th e re c o v e ry o f e n d a n g e re d species a n d p o p u la tio ns th r o u g h in situ conservation in v o lv in g h a b i ta t p ro te c t io n and re s to ra t io n . 5. Take a l l reasonable measures to p re v e n t th e h um a n -m e d ia te d in t r o d u c t io n o f a l ie n species in to th e e n v i ro nm e n t . 6. P reven t harm to the en v ir onm en t as th e b e s t m e th o d o f e c o lo g i c a l p ro te c t io n and, w hen k n ow le d g e is l im i t ed , take the path o f cau tio n .

1. G ive special a tte n t io n in decis io n -m a k in g to th e c u m id a t iv e , lo n g - te rm a n d g lo b a l consequences o f i n d iv id u a l a n d lo ca l actions. 2. S top activitie s th a t th re a te n i r re v e rs ib le o r serious h a rm even w hen sc ie n tific in fo rm a t io n is in com p le te o r in conclusive. 3. E s tab lis h e n v i ro n m e n ta l p r o te c t io n s tandards and m o n i to r in g systems w i th th e p ow e r to detect s ig n if ic a n t h um a n e n v iro nm e n ta l im p a c ts , a n d r e q u i r e e n v i r o n m e n ta l im p a c t assessments and re p o r t in g . 4. M a n d a te t h a t th e p o l lu t e r m u s t bear the f u l l cost o f p o l lu t io n . 5. E nsure th a t measures ta ken to p re v e n t o r c o n t ro l n a tu ra l disasters, in fe s ta t io ns and diseases are d i r e c te d to th e re le v a n t causes

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and a vo id h a rm fu l side effects. 6. U p h o ld th e i n t e r n a t io n a l o b l ig a t io n o f states to take a ll reasonable p re c a u t io n a r y measures to p re v e n t t r a n s b o u n d a r y e n v i ro nm e n ta l h a rm . 7. Treat a ll liv in g b e in g s w ith c om p a s s io n , and p r o t e c t th em from cru e lty and wanton d e s tru c t io n .

I I I . A JUST AND SUSTAINABLE

ECONOMIC ORDER 8. Adopt patterns o f con sum p t io n , p r o d u c t io n and r e p r o d u c t io n that r e sp e c t and sa feg u a rd E arth ’s r e generative cap a c i tie s , hum an r igh ts and com m un ity w e ll-b e in g .

1. E l im in a te h a rm fu l waste, and w o r k to ensure th a t a ll waste can be e i th e r consum ed b y b io lo g ic a l systems o r used o v e r th e lo n g te rm in in d u s t r ia l and te c h n o lo g ical systems. 2. A c t w i th re s t ra in t and e ff ic ie n cy w hen u s in g energy a n d o th e r resources, and reduce, reuse and recycle materials. 3. Rely in c re a s in g ly o n re n e w able energy sources such as the sun, th e w in d , biomass a n d h y d ro gen. 4. E s ta b l is h m a r k e t p r ic e s a n d e c o n om ic in d ic a to r s th a t re f le c t the f u l l e n v iro nm e n ta l a n d social costs o f h um a n activ itie s , ta k in g in to account th e econom ic value o f the services p ro v id e d by ecolo g ic a l systems. 5. E m p o w e r consum e rs to choose sustainable p ro d u c ts over unsustainable ones by c rea tin g mechanisms such as ce rt i f ic a t io n and la be llin g . 6. P ro v id e u n iv e rs a l access to hea lth care th a t fosters re p r o d u c t iv e h e a l th a n d r e sponsible re p ro d u c t io n .

9. Ensure that e c o n om ic a c t iv i t i e s s u p p o r t and p r o m o te h um a n d e v e lo pm e n t in an equ ita b le and su s ta in able manner. 1. P ro m o te th e e q u i ta b le d is t r ib u t io n o f wealth. 2. Assist a l l c om m u n i t ie s a n d n a t io n s i n d e v e lo p in g the in te l le c tu a l , f in a n c ia l and te c h n ic a l resources to meet th e i r basic needs, p ro te c t the e n v i r o n m e n t a n d im p ro v e the q u a l i ty o f life . 10. Eradicate poverty, as an e th ic a l , s o c ia l , e c o n om ic and e c o lo g ic a l im perative.

1. Establish fa i r and ju s t access to la n d , n a tu ra l resources, t r a in in g , know le dge and c re d i t , em p ow e r in g e ve ry p e rs on to a tta in a sec u re and sustainable liv e l ih o o d . 2. G e n e ra te o p p o r t u n i t ie s f o r p ro d u c t iv e a n d m e a n in g fu l em p lo ym e n t. 3. Make clean a ffo rd a b le energy available to a ll. 4. R ecognize th e ig n o r e d , p r o te c t th e v u ln e ra b le , serve those w h o su ffe r , a n d re s p e c t t h e i r r i g h t to develop th e i r capacities and to p u rs u e th e i r aspirations. 5. Relieve d e v e lo p in g nations o f o n e ro u s in te r n a t io n a l debts th a t im pede th e i r p rogress in m ee t in g basic h um a n needs th r o u g h susta in ab le d e ve lo pm en t. 11. H on ou r and d e f en d th e r ight o f a l l p er so n s , w ith ou t d isc r im in a t io n , to an e n v ir o nm e n t su p p o r t iv e o f t h e ir d ig n i ty , b o d i l y h e a l th and sp ir itu a l w e ll -b e in g .

1. Secure th e h u m a n r i g h t to po ta b le water, clean air, u n c o n ta m in a te d so i l, fo o d s e c u r i ty a n d safe s a n i ta t io n in u rb a n , r u r a l and rem o te e n v iro nm e n ts . 2. Establish rac ia l, re l ig io u s , e th n ic and socio-econom ic equality. 3. A f f i rm th e r i g h t o f in d ig e n o u s

8 Resurgence No. 195 July/August 1999 peop le s to t h e i r s p i r i t u a l i t y , k n ow le d g e , la nds and resources a n d to t h e i r re la te d p ra c t ic e o f t r a d i t io n a l su s ta in ab le l i v e l i hoods. 4. In s t i tu te e ffe c tive and e f f ic ie n t access to a dm in is t ra t iv e and j u d i c ia l p ro cedures, in c lu d in g redress and rem edy, th a t enable a ll p e r sons to e n fo rc e t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n ta l r ig h ts . 12. A dvance w orldw id e the co -o p e r a t iv e s tu d y o f e c o lo g ic a l s y s t em s , th e d is s em in a t io n and a p p l ic a t io n o f k n o w le d g e , and th e d e v e l o p m en t , a d o p t io n and tr a n s fe r o f c le a n t e c h n o lo g ie s .

1. S u p p o r t sc ie n t if ic research in th e p u b l ic in te rest. 2. Value th e t r a d i t io n a l k n o w l edge o f in d ig e n o u s peoples and lo ca l com m un it ie s . 3. Assess a n d re g u la te em e rg in g te c h n o lo g ie s , such as b io te c h n o lo g y , r e g a r d in g t h e i r e n v iro nm e n ta l , hea lth and socioeconom ic impacts. 4. E n s u re th a t th e e x p lo r a t io n a n d use o f o r b i ta l a n d o u te r space s u p p o r t peace and sustainable developm en t.

I V D EM OCRACY A N D PEACE 13. E s tab lish a ccess to in form a t ion , in c lu s iv e participation in d e c i s io n m ak in g , and transparency, tru th fu ln e s s and a c c o u n t a b i l i ty in governance.

1. Secure the r ig h t o f a ll persons to be in fo rm e d about ecological, e c o n om ic and social d e v e lo p m en ts th a t a ffe c t th e q u a l i t y o f th e i r lives. 2. Establish and p ro te c t th e fre e d om o f association and the r ig h t to dissent on matters o f e n v i ro n m ental, economic and social policy. 3. E n s u re th a t k n o w le d g e r e sources v i ta l to p e o p le ’ s basic needs a n d d e v e lo pm e n t re m a in accessible a n d in the p u b l ic d o m a in . 4. E nable lo ca l c o m m u n i t ie s to care fo r th e i r ow n e n v iro nm e n ts , and assign re sponsib ilit ie s f o r e n v i ro nm e n ta l p ro te c t io n to the le v els o f g o v e rnm e n t w here th ey can be c a r r ie d o u t most effectively. 5. C reate mechanisms th a t h o ld governm en ts , in te rn a t io n a l o rg a n iza tio ns and business en te rp ris es accountable to the p u b l ic f o r the consequences o f th e i r activities.

14. A ffirm and p r om o t e g e n d e r e q u a l i ty a s a p r e r e q u i s i t e to s u s ta inab le d ev e lo pm en t .

1. P ro v id e , on the basis o f gend e r e q u a lity , u n iv e rs a l access to e d u c a t io n , h e a l th care a n d em p lo ym e n t in o r d e r to s u p p o r t the f u l l d e v e lo p m e n t o f e v e ry p e r son’s h um a n d ig n i t y and p o te n tia l. 2. E s ta b l is h th e f u l l a n d equal p a r t ic ip a t io n o f w om e n in c iv i l , c u l tu r a l , e conom ic , p o l i t ic a l and social life . 15. Make th e k n ow le d g e , va lu e s and sk i l ls n e ed ed to b u i ld j u s t and s u s ta in a b le c om m u n i t ie s an in te g r a l part o f form a l ed u ca t io n and l i f e lo n g le a rn in g for a ll.

1. P ro v id e y o u th w ith the t r a in i n g a n d re sources r e q u i r e d to p a r t ic ip a te e ffe c tiv e ly in c iv il society and p o l i t ic a l a ffa irs . 2. Encourage th e c o n t r ib u t io n o f th e a r t is t ic im a g in a t io n and th e h um a n i t ie s as w e l l as th e sciences in e n v i ro nm e n ta l e d u ca t io n and sustainable deve lo pm e n t. 3. Engage the m ed ia in th e cha llenge o f fu l ly e d u c a t in g the p u b lic on susta in ab le d e v e lo pm e n t , and take advantage o f th e educat io n a l o p p o r tu n i t ie s p ro v id e d by advanced in f o rm a t i o n te c h n o logies. 16. Create a cu ltu r e o f p ea c e and co-op eration .

1. Seek w is dom a n d in n e r peace. 2. P ractise n o n v io le n c e , im p le m en t com p re hensive strategies to p re v e n t v io le n t c o n f l ic t , and use c o l la b o ra t iv e p ro b le m -s o lv in g to manage and resolve c o n f l ic t. 3. Teach to le ra n c e a n d fo r g iv e ness, and p ro m o te c ro ss -c u ltu ra l and in te r - re l ig io u s d ia lo g u e and co l la b o ra t io n . 4. E l im in a te weapons o f mass de s tru c t io n , p ro m o te d is a rm am e n t , secure th e e n v i r o n m e n t against severe damage caused b y m i l i ta r y activitie s , and c o n v e r t m i l i ta r y r e sources to w a rd peaceful purposes. 5. Recognize th a t peace is th e wholeness c re a te d by ba la nced a n d h a rm o n io u s re la t io n s h ip s w i th oneself, o th e r persons, o th e r c u l tu re s , o th e r l i f e , E a r th , and the la rg e r w ho le o f w h ic h a l l are a part.

A N ew B eginning As n e v e r b e fo re in h um a n h is to ry ,

com m o n d e s t in y beckons us to re d e f in e o u r p r io r i t ie s and to seek a new b e g in n in g . Such re n ew a l is th e p ro m is e o f these E a r th C h a r te r p r in c ip le s , w h ic h are th e ou tc om e o f a w o r ld w id e d ia lo g u e in search o f c om m o n g r o u n d and shared values. F u l f i lm e n t o f th is p rom is e depends u p o n o u r e x p a n d in g a n d deepening th e g lo ba l d ia lo g u e . I t re q u ire s an in n e r change — a change o f h e a r t and m in d . I t re q u ire s th a t we take decisive a c tio n to a d o p t, a p p ly and d e v e lo p th e v is io n o f th e E a r th C h a r te r locally, na t io n a lly , re g io n a l ly and g lobally. D i f fe re n t c u l tu re s and c om m u n it ie s w i l l f i n d th e i r ow n d is t in c t iv e ways to express th e v is io n , and we w i l l have m u ch to le a rn f r o m each o ther.

E ve ry i n d iv id u a l , fam ily , o rg a n i za tio n , c o rp o r a t io n and g o v e rn m e n t has a c r i t ic a l ro le to play. Youth are fu n d am e n ta l actors f o r change. Partnerships m u s t be fo rg e d at a ll levels. O u r best t h o u g h t a n d a c t io n w i l l f lo w f r o m th e in te g ra t io n o f k n o w l edge w i th love and compassion.

I n o r d e r to b u i ld a susta in ab le g lo bal c om m u n ity , th e nations o f the w o r ld m u s t re n ew t h e i r c o m m i t m e n t to th e U n i te d Nations and de v e lo p a n d im p le m e n t th e E a r th C h a r te r p r in c ip le s b y n e g o t ia t in g f o r a d o p t io n a b i n d in g a g re em en t based on th e IU C N D ra f t In t e r n a t io n a l C o v e n a n t o n E n v i r o n m e n t and D e ve lo pm e n t . A d o p t io n o f the C o venant w i l l p ro v id e an in te g ra te d legal f ra m e w o rk f o r e n v ir o nm e n ta l a n d susta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t law and policy.

We can, i f we w i l l , take advantage o f th e c rea t ive possibilitie s be fo re us a n d in a u g u r a te an e ra o f fre sh hope. L e t ou rs be a tim e th a t is re m em b e re d f o r an a w a k e n in g to a new re ve rence f o r l ife , a f i r m com m i tm e n t to re s to ra t io n o f E a r th ’ s ecological in te g r i ty , a q u ic k e n in g o f the s tru g g le f o r ju s t ic e and em p ow e rm e n t o f th e people, co -o pe ra t iv e e n g a g em e n t o f g lo b a l p ro b le m s , p e a c e fu l m a n a g em e n t o f change and jo y fu l c e le b ra t io n o f life . We w i l l succeed because we m ust. •

T h i s is a d raft d o c u m e n t . I f any readers w o u ld lik e to com m en t on it or make su g g e s t io n s , p le a s e c o n tact S tep h en C. R ockefeller, Chair, Earth Charter D rafting C omm ittee, PO B o x 6 4 8 , M id d le b u r y VT 0 5 7 5 3 , USA. Fax: (802) 388-1951.

Resurgence No. 195 July/August 1999 9