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Sacred Mountains Are Quarried Deep in the heartland of South Central Timor, the Molo tribe is up in arms. For on July 5th, marble mining company PT Karya Asta Alam (PT KAA) began drilling into their two sacred mountains.

licising the numerous violations carried out by the company. Mining on sacred land is illegal under Indonesian law, and PT KAA don't have permission from the regional government to quarry the mountains. What's more, the Molo's stone-hills fall within a designated National Park, which is protected by law against the ravages of mining.

Fatu Naususu and Fatu Anjaf are where the Molo go to pray. When important community decisions need to be made, the tribespeople meet on their mountains. Ancient folklore has it that the first Molo man and woman appeared on Naususu and Anjaf. So when they die, the Molo are buried in the ancient hills.

A network of local indigenous groups have rallied to the Molo's defence, pub­

Ecologically, the mine would be a disaster. The water-intensive industry would pollute and diminish the mountains' river water, drying up the fertile agricultural land below, dubbed 'the rice bowl' of Timor. When another company began mining in the same region last year, poisonous chemical runoff from

the quarrying led to the revocation of the company's license. PT KAA has no environmental strategy and, so far, has failed to undertake an Environmental Impact Assessment.

PT KAA, in cahoots with the local government, have responded aggressively to the Molo's protests. Last week, 200 armed guards were hired to protect the company's site.

Please write to the Indonesian Environmental Minister: Mr. Panantian Siregar, Jl. M. Merdeka Bar at 15, Jakarta Pus at, Indonesia. The London Embassy telephone number is +44(0)171 499 7661.

Norway to Claim PCB Compensation Norwegian authorities are preparing a collective lawsuit, demanding compensation from the world's former PCB manufacturers.

Norway's fjords and harbours are believed to contain up to 400 tonnes of polychlorinated biphenyls, for which clean-up costs are estimated at £1.1 billion.

PCBs, the bulk of which were sold by a subsidiary of our old friends Monsanto, came onto the market in the 1930s. The greasy fluids were used as insulators

in electrical equipment. But production was short-lived. When PCBs were found to concentrate up the food chain, saturating animal fat with hormone disrupting toxins, the chemicals were banned. However, prevention came too late. Already, one fifth of the 1.5 billion tonnes manufactured is circulating through the oceans, poisoning marine life across the world. In 1997, arctic researchers discovered four hermaphroditic polar bear cubs, whilst dolphin, seal and whale blubber is so contaminated that coastal authorities have to treat beached marine mammals as "toxic

waste".

Normally, Norwegian land-owners have to foot the bills for any local pollution problems. But i f the authorities can prove that producers knowingly sold an environmentally hazardous product, then companies like Monsanto will be forced to pay up.

Local authorities from several regions, including Norway's capital, Oslo, are keen to press charges. Such a lawsuit would be the first attempt by a nation state to gain recompense for the disastrous, irreversible consequences of the world's PCB poisoning.

The Renewable Revolution Brazil is investing billions in renewable energy, whilst in Iceland, a hydrogen revolution is taking place. Africa, with its new solar training programme, is also on the make.

Meanwhile, Iceland is aiming to cut its links with fossil fuels altogether and become the world's first "hydrogen economy." Analysts believe that the Earth's most sparsely populated country could become the 21st century's "hydrogen sheikh," i f it pits its abundant water resources into hydrogen fuel cells.

In a new government project, Brazil will invest billions in renewable energy, to bring power to 20 million Brazilians. Through wind turbines, solar cells, biomass and small hydropower developments, the government hopes to promote 10,000 small renewable energy schemes a year. Each project would provide clean, locally-produced energy for up to 200 rural people and would, perhaps, provide an alternative to some of the destructive oil-prospecting schemes currently planned for the Amazon basin, with the government's blessing.

Fuel cell technology has been around since its discovery in 1839 by Welsh physicist William Grove. He showed that reacting hydrogen with oxygen in the presence of platinum electrodes created electricity. Because the only byproduct of a functioning hydrogen fuel cell is water, the technology, widely applied, could provide a renewable alternative to polluting carbon technology.

With its countless fast-flowing rivers and volcanic rock pools, Iceland is an ideal place for the production of renew­

able energy. Although much of the country's electricity already comes from hydroelectric and geothermal power, currently, only 10 per cent of the country's hydroelectric potential is being tapped. Icelanders hope to use the excess energy to power first buses, then fishing fleets, then trucks and cars.

In Tanzania, another renewable energy scheme is making waves. The KARADEA Solar Training Facility is training individual Africans to erect solar energy systems, and giving them the skills to pass on their knowledge. Already, people from as far afield as Kenya, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia and Somalia have taken part in the project, and there are currently some 200 UDEFA approved solar technicians at large in sub-Saharan Africa.

The Fxologist, Vol. 29. No 6, October 1999

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