seem to have an effect on the proportion of the population that dies because of these diseases, including smoking, climate, soil type, prevailing wind systems and topography of the area, in addition to the concentration and chemical composition of air pollution. From the point of view of Malibu, one fact is worth mentioning: the rate of increase in incidence of the pollution diseases seems to be greater than the state average in counties that are urbanising rapidly.
Some people may argue that there is no need to fear pollution in Malibu because it is adjacent to the ocean, and offshore breezes will blow the pollution off Malibu out to sea. This would come as good news to the county public health officers of other oceanside counties, but unfortunately they know it is not true.
The same patterns show up in the case of lung cancer death rates. That is, as the pollution builds up in counties which have been previously relatively unpolluted we notice corresponding buildups in the death rates for lung cancer as well as emphysema. To further indicate that these death rate changes may be caused by air pollution rather than some other factor, we have noticed that the level to which the death rate rises is proportionate to the pollution concentrating in the county.
I have said nothing about a variety of problems which we are just beginning to understand, such as the effect of urbanisation on temperature, fog, rainfall, and variability from year to year in rainfall. Scientific conservatism dictates that we do not alarm the citizenry until all the facts are in, but early information in many areas (such as the effect of smog on the weather) is alarming. I think it is safe to say that all responsible scientists expect smog to have very large effects on the weather at sometime in the future the only disagreement being over when this happens: two or three decades, or eight or nine.
The citizens of Malibu are confronted by a clear choice. I f they opt for a freeway and intensive urbanisation, with all the well-known advantages conferred by these developments, they must accept that there are social costs and that these may be high. This article is reprinted from Zero Population Growth by permission of the editor. 22
7-11 February—Clean Ai r and Antipollution Exhibition, Lancaster Hall, Belle Vue, Manchester. Also conference on "Clean Ai r and Industry" organised by the National Society for Clean Air , 134-137 North Street, Brighton BN1 1RG. Tel : Brighton 26313. 16 February—"Developments in Education for Environmental Health". A one-day symposium arranged by the School of Biological Sciences. Further information from B. N . Kliger, Department of Biology and Cell Science, Thames Polytechnic, Wellington Street, London SE18. February (end of month, date as yet unknown)—-"Technology on Trial " International Conference on the growing problems arising from the impact of technological, demographic and economic development on the conditions of the biosphere. Organised by Unione Democratica Diregenti di Azienda in connection with the Club of Rome. Further details: contact the Unione Democratica, Palazzo Ruspoli, Via Delia Fontanella di Borghese, 56, 00186, Roma. 29 March—"Non-Renewable Resources" the fourth in a series of six public lectures on population, resources and environment entitled DOWN TO EARTH held by the Conservation Society at Overseas House, Park Place, St James Street, London, S.W.I. Admission lOp at the door, or 50p for the series (also at the door). Lecture starts at 7 p.m. (doors open at 6 p.m.). 11- 13 April—Phosphorus in Fresh Water and The Marine Environment. Conference at Botany Lecture Theatre, University College, London WC1/6BT. Enquiries: Prof. K . J. Ives, University College, London. 12- 13 April—"The Profitable Management of Waste Materials and Environmental Control". Two-day course at Cabot House, Ashley Down, Bristol. For further details contact H . K . Compton, Bristol Polytechnic, Felixstowe, Bristol. 1-3 May—Offshore Technology Conference at Houston, Texas. Enquiries: R. D. Sherman, Exhibition Consultants Ltd., 11 Manchester Square, London, W.l . Tel : 01- 486 1951. 31 May—"The Biosphere Cycles", the 5th of a series of lectures on population, resources and environment called DOWN TO EARTH held by the Conservation Society at Overseas House, Park Place, St. James Street, S.W.I. Admission lOp at the door, or 50p for the series (also at the door). Commencement 7 p.m. 2- 8 June—"L'Homme, L'Ai r et L'Eau" (Man, Ai r and Water). International Symposium and Exhibition organised within the framework of the International Week for Environment under the patronage of Mr Jacques Chaban-Delmas, Prime Minister. Enquiries: R. D. Sherman, Exhibition Consultants Ltd., 11 Manchester Square, London, W.l . Tel : 01-486 1951. 5-16 June—ONLY ONE EARTH—United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. Stockholm. For further information : Palaise des Nations, Geneva. Tel : 34 60 11.
MAN REQUIRES POSITION as scientific correspondent for chemical or related journal. Would like to work from home address (has young children). Has NNC in chemistry, eight years experience in industrial chemistry, GCE 'O' level passes include English Language and Literature. Typing experience. Age 26. Apply 42 Springfield Garden, Ilkeston, Derbys. GRADUATE, 22, degree in Civil Engineering but disillusioned with choice of profession, deeply interested in all aspects of ecology/conservation, seeks any job in this field. Box E146, The Ecologist. SMALLHOLDING: Five to 25 acres, Sussex, available to start organic growing— vegetables, fruit, eggs, heifers, etc. No rent; partnership arrangement; hard work: dedication more important than experience: suit young, retired or semi-retired person. Excellent outlets for produce. Ling, 103 Westwood Hill , London, SE 26. 01-778 8387. JOIN TH E FUGITIVES from technological bedlam for a unique holiday. Cowley Wood Conservation Centre is set in a beautiful wooded valley within the Exmoor National Park. Our 77 acre nature reserve has red deer, buzzard, etc. Nature trails, hides, wildlife garden amidst glorious oak woodland. Recreational facilities, ecological demonstrations and discusssions. Six secluded caravans screened and camouflaged—modern toilet facilities. Limited B. & B. accommodation. Environment and wildlife conservation dictates our planning and way of life. Ten per cent discount for Friends of the Earth. Brochure from: Cowley Wood, Nr. Parracombe, Barnstaple, North Devon. Parracombe 200. VILLAG E HOLIDAY I N TURKEY . Ideal for families, nature lovers, vegetarians who appreciate clean air, walking, riding, swimming, etc. Easy access to major historic towns (Istanbul, Bursa) as well as proximity to famous Spa. Accommodation in simple but homely family pensions with balconies and panoramic views. Bookings per week (not July and August). British subject on the spot to interpret and give general help. Apply Box 12A, The Ecologist. MALE CHEMISTRY GRADUATE, 27, with 1 year's chemistry research plus 4 years' computer/O.R. experience seeks renewed motivation from working in conservation, ecology, pollution control, etc. Box E147, The Ecologist.
A Blueprint for survival statement of support
In the Statement of Support, which appeared with the Blueprint for Survival i n our January number. Professor V. C. WynneEdwards, FRS, was described as Chairman of the Natural Environment Research Council. Prof. Wynne-Edwards' period of office as Chairman of NERC ended on the 30th September, 1971, and his support for the Blueprint does not involve or commit NERC in any way. We wish to apologise to NERC and to Prof. Wynn-Edwards for our inaccuracy. Reports
Our Conscience, 'The Hawk Trust9
During this century, with considerable legacies from the end of the last, we have managed to decimate many formerly common species of hawks and falcons. I t started with all out warfare on these and other predators to preserve game birds so as to produce the fantastic bags in the early 1900's, and has been completed with the help of toxic chemicals applied in agriculture. Sparrowhawks, peregrines and many others are now rarities. Much has been done to try and counter this trend by the application of more stringent rules to the testing of chemicals, the removal of those pesticides which have been found to be persistent and dangerous, together with the more sensible and realistic attitude of modern landowners and gamekeepers.
Nevertheless, for some species, the tendency is for the decline in population to continue, while others are recovering but slowly. The Hawk Trust was founded to try and see what could be done to build up these fascinating birds to a level where their continued existence is secure once more.
The official aim of the Trust is to try and conserve our native species. Their object is to take immediate, positive action by breeding the birds in captivity for release in suitable areas in the wild. By such action it is hoped to halt the decline, and perhaps even increase the natural stock, and help our native hawks regain some of their former territories. Besides this aim, the members hope to increase the general interest in birds of prey, initiate research into their mode of life and publish such information in periodic reports.
The Trust has already started its breeding programme and has released several broods of kestrels in open country on Dartmoor and in Gloucestershire. The first breeding aviaries run by the Trust are on ground kindly lent by the Falconry Centre at Newent. The Falconry Centre is a privately run venture which Mr and Mrs Philip Glasier and Martin Jones opened a few years ago to display birds of prey, and show the history of Falconry and the birds in action. People visiting this fascinating place showed a keen interest in our native hawks and gradually the idea of the Hawk Trust evolved, nothing to do with the Centre but arising from it, in a sense.
Philip Glasier was persuaded to become Chairman of the Trust, and he it was who so kindly loaned the ground, and gave much encouragement in the early, struggling days. Now the Trust have a number of aviaries on this ground, erected and looked after by members. Plans are ambitious. I t is hoped to instal and breed from pairs of peregrines, red kites, buzzards, merlins and kestrels. There is much to be learned about birds of prey and their special breeding needs, and it is hoped that considerable scientific knowledge will be gained, to be written up in due course by the Trust.
Membership is growing at a reasonable pace but, as time is so crucial, every effort is being made to attract people to the Trust at an accelerated rate, through film shows, lectures and an increasingly vigorous programme of events.
One such most successful venture was a recent Open Day held at Cheltenham Racecourse one weekend in April. Several hundred people attended, to-